... the participants took a three-question math test with questions such as, "A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?"
The intuitive answer to that question is 10 cents, since most people's first impulse is to knock $1 off the total. But people who use "reflective" reasoning to question their first impulse are more likely to get the correct answer: 5 cents.
My mathematical ineptness is legendary, but I've always been pretty good at arithmetic. So what am I missing here? What accounts for the remaining 5 cents? Also, it may well be that there is no one-size-fits-all way to arrive at truth.